After biding farewell to the Wujiang Pavilion and sending away his beloved Wuzhen horse, Xiang Yu led the remaining 26 cavalrymen and launched the final charge against the Han army.
Earlier, he led 800 cavalry to break out of the siege of Gaixia, and suffered damage along the way. In Wujiang, the pavilion chief persuaded him to cross the river to make a comeback. Faced with his last 26 cavalry, Xiang Yu said:
Therefore, Xiang Yu presented his mount Wuzheng horse to Wujiang Pavilion Chief, and he dismounted all 26 cavalry on foot, holding short weapons and carrying out the final battle with 5000 chasing soldiers sent by Liu Bang.
Holding a short weapon in his hand, Xiang Yu courageously killed a hundred Han soldiers. However, he himself was also covered with more than a dozen wounds. At the last moment of his life, he looked back and saw the Han Qi Sima surrounded by Han soldiers.
After speaking, a generation of overlord immediately committed suicide and ended his 30-year-old life.
King Chu fell down suddenly.
The Han army general Wang Yi immediately cut off Xiang Yu's head. In order to compete for Xiang Yu's remaining corpse to invite rewards, the Han army also launched fierce cannibalism within the army, and dozens of people died as a result.
In the end, Lang Zhongqi Yang Xi, Qi Sima Lu Matong, Lang Zhong Lu Sheng, and Yang Wu each won the remains of Xiang Yu. Together with the head cut off by Wang Yi, Xiang Yu's body was finally chopped into five pieces in Liu Bang. In front of him, the five people pieced together the corpses that they had robbed. After confirming that they were correct, Liu Bang honored him.
The five people who obtained Xiang Yu’s body were also named as marquis: Lu Matong was named Zhongshuihou, Wang Yi was named Du Yanhou, Yang Xi was named Chiquanhou, and Yang Wu was named Wu Fang. When, Lu Sheng was named Nirvana.
One month after Xiang Yu was dismembered and invited to reward him, in February 202 BC, Liu Bang held the ascension ceremony at the Yangtze River in Dingtao, Shandong (now north of Caoxian County, Shandong).
As the last hero of the classical era, Xiang Yu's death also marked the final demise of the heroic spirit and aristocratic spirit of the classical era of China, while Liu Bang, who advocated power and trickery, had the last laugh in the rising imperial era. To
Speaking of it, Xiang Yu's demise has been foreshadowed since he bid farewell to Xianyang and returned to his hometown.
In 206 BC, after Xiang Yu defeated the main force of the Qin Army in the Battle of Julu, he led the Kwantung Allied Forces to go west to Xianyang. After the 200,000 Qin Army descended and killed Qin Prince Ying after entering the pass, Xiang Yu burned Afang Palace again. , And then prepare to return to Jiangdong with the treasures collected from Qin State.
Therefore, some people suggested that Xiang Yu said that the Guanzhong area headed by Xianyang (Xi'an) is blocked by mountains and rivers, and the land is fertile, so that the capital can become a dominance. However, Xiang Yu’s answer is: “If you don’t return to your hometown, you are rich and wealthy. It’s normal to travel in the dark, anyone knows?"
This is the origin of the idiom "Jinyi Night Walk".
The admonisher laughed and said in private,
The angry Xiang Yu was not polite and immediately threw the admonisher into the boiling water pot and boiled.
After that, Xiang Yu led his army back to Jiangdong and set his capital in Pengcheng (present-day Xuzhou, Jiangsu) in the southeast of the North China Plain, and claimed to be the overlord of Western Chu.
As a native of Chu, after defeating Xiang Yu and becoming emperor, Liu Bang chose Luoyang instead of Xianyang as his capital.
In the last years of the Qin Dynasty, most of the heroes who participated in the defeat of the Qin Kingdom were from the original six countries of Chu, South Korea, Zhao, Wei, Yan and Qi from the Kanto (east of Hangu Pass). For them, although the Xianyang and Guanzhong areas, which belonged to the Qin people’s hometown, were "suffocated by mountains and rivers, and fertile," the first thoughts of Liu Bang and his courtiers were that Xianyang was too far away from their hometown, not just like Xiang Yu. First choice for both.
In this regard, instead, a small soldier and soldier from the original Qi state, Lou Jing, saw the importance of the problem.
After Liu Bang initially chose Luoyang as the capital, Lou Jing asked for a meeting as a soldier and said to Liu Bangjin:
The core of Lou Jingjin's remonstrance was to persuade Liu Bang to establish the capital of Xianyang, which will be Chang'an in the future, and to rely on the Guanzhong area as the capital of the empire.
Liu Bang was undecided. Finally, with the full support of Zhang Liang, Liu Bang decided to change his capital to Chang'an, thereby laying the political and geographical foundation of the Western Han Empire and the Chinese Empire for the next millennium.
Xiang Yu didn't see this foundation.
In the history of China, the core of operations from the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties has always been in the Central Plains in the middle reaches of the Yellow River with Henan as its core. Xi'an) was defeated by a nomadic tribe, and Luoyi (Luoyang) was the capital of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
Because Qin Xianggong escorted King Zhou Ping to move eastward, King Zhou Ping promised that as long as the Qin people can regain the Shaanxi homeland occupied by nomadic tribes, all these lands will belong to the Qin people. Therefore, after a hundred years of hard work, the Qin people finally gradually regained the Guanzhong area. It took hundreds of years to turn the Guanzhong area into the political and economic basis for the destruction of eastern countries.
In fact, if you pay attention to China’s historical geography, you can find that China’s military geography has always presented a kind of
At the turn of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, King Wu of Zhou relied on Guanzhong and conquered the Shang Kingdom, which was located in Anyang, Henan. The Kingdom of Qin also relied on the Guanzhong Plain, and eventually garnered the East, eliminated the six kingdoms and unified the world;
In the four years of struggle between Chu and Han (206 BC-202 BC), Liu Bang also relied on the strength and resources of the Guanzhong area to be able to defeat repeatedly by Xiang Yu, and finally turned defeat into victory and seize the world;
After the Han Dynasty, Emperor Wu Wenyong of the Northern Zhou Dynasty also relied on the favorable situation of Chang'an, the capital city and Guanzhong, and finally eliminated the powerful Northern Qi in the east with a weak national power, thus uniting the north and laying the foundation for the later Sui Dynasty to unify the world. Foundation
At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, Li Yuan, the emperor of the Tang Dynasty, first sent troops from Jinyang (Taiyuan) to capture Guanzhong, and then took the Guanzhong area as his base camp, and eventually gradually annihilated the heroes in the late Sui Dynasty and conquered the world.
It is impossible for Xiang Yu to know the history of China thousands of years after his death, but he obviously has no fundamental insight into the mystery of the Qin people that he could learn from before.
Therefore, when he abandoned the Guanzhong area and traveled eastward to establish the capital Pengcheng (now Xuzhou, Jiangsu), the seeds of his decline were planted.
It was also the day when the overlord died when he returned home.
Not only that, but Chu Bawang also made a major mistake in his judgment of the world's trend.
During the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, the state system centered on co-lords has always been the main political form on the land of China. Among them, Zhou people, as merchants, overthrew the rule of merchants and became the new co-lords of the world.
After the people of Zhou gained the world, they adopted the feudal system of entrusting the nations. Therefore, based on the name of the king of Zhou, the competition for hegemony among the nations in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period became more and more intense. The result of this kind of hegemony was that the Qin people eventually unified the world, and established
Although he led the coalition forces to destroy the Qin Dynasty, Xiang Yu still lived in the system and thinking of the Warring States Period.
Therefore, after honoring the king of Chu Huai as the "Emperor of Yi", which means the nominal emperor and the false emperor, Xiang Yu also called himself the overlord of Western Chu, and then entrusted 18 princes.
Besides Xiang Yu himself, the 18 princes were Liu Bang, Zhang Han, Sima Xin, Dong Yi, Wang Bao, Shen Yang, sima'ang, Zhao Xie, zhang'er, zhang'er, Wu Rui, Wu Rui, gong'ao, Han Guang and Zang da There are 18 princes and princes in Jiaodong, qiwangtian City, qiwangtiandu, Jibei wangtian'an, etc.
Besides Xiang Yu himself, the 18 princes were Liu Bang, Zhang Han, Sima Xin, Dong Yi, Wang Bao, Shen Yang, sima'ang, Zhao Xie, zhang'er, zhang'er, Wu Rui, Wu Rui, gong'ao, Han Guang and Zang da There are 18 princes and princes in Jiaodong, qiwangtian City, qiwangtiandu, Jibei wangtian'an, etc.
Therefore, after hundreds of years of exploration in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the Qin people finally determined the formation of the county system, and under Xiang Yu's distribution, it became a situation where there were emperors, overlords, and vassals in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period.
It seems that everyone is happy.
China's political system changed from a state system to a system of prefectures and counties. There is a reason for its natural evolution, and Xiang Yu's restoration of the state system soon went wrong.
Xiang Yu divided the eighteen princes and kings, probably in April 206 BC, but only one month later, the world fell into chaos again.
The cause of the chaos, in addition to the state system, the superficial cause was Xiang Yu's uneven distribution of the spoils.
Only one month after Xiang Yu's distribution, Qi state was in chaos first.
In the turbulent times when the heroes of the late Qin Dynasty came together, Tian Rong actually controlled most of the original homeland of Qi, but because of contradictions with Xiang Yu, Tian Rong refused to send troops to help Xiang Yu attack the Qin State, and this ended up with Xiang Yu. Liangzi. Therefore, when entrusting the eighteen princes, Xiang Yu deliberately ignored Tian Rong’s actual control of Qi, and instead split the territory of Qi into three: the original Qiwangtian city was renamed Jiaodong King; the original Qi State The general Tian Du was changed to the king of Qi because he followed Xiang Yu to destroy Qin, and was made king of Qi; Tian An, the grandson of the former Qi king Tianjian, was also named King of Jibei because he assisted in destroying Qin and took refuge in Xiang Yu.
Tian Rong was naturally furious, so just after the three kings entrusted by Xiang Yu entered the homeland of Qi, Tian Rong immediately rebelled and attacked the other three kings to reunify Qi. Not only that, Tian Rong also incorporated Peng Yue's bandit army and let them guerrilla attack Xiang Yu's army.
In addition to the state of Qi, Zhao also had an accident shortly after Xiang Yu's enfeoffment.
Before Xiang Yu led the coalition forces to destroy the Qin Dynasty, at that time, the State of Zhao had established Zhao Wangxie, and Zhang Er was the minister, and Chen Yu was the general. However, when Xianyang was entrusted to the princes and kings, because Zhang Er followed him to destroy the Kingdom of Qin, Xiang Yu changed Zhang Er as the king of Zhao, and changed the original king of Zhao to the acting king.
Chen Yu did not follow Qin's destruction, and did not take advantage of it, but he controlled Zhao's territory and naturally refused to let it go.
As a result, Chen Yu quickly drove away Zhang Er, who was entrusted by Xiang Yu, and instead welcomed back to Zhao Wangxie. Zhao Wangxie sent peaches to Li and made Chen Yu the acting king. In order to contend with Xiang Yu, Chen Yu and Zhao Wangxie united again and joined Tian Rong of Qi to fight against Xiang Yu. Therefore, Xiang Yu, who had just been entrusted to the princes and kings, soon established Qi and Zhao for himself in the north of Chu. Two powerful enemies.
In the west, the threat from Han King Liu Bang is even stronger.
When Xiang Yu was entrusting the eighteen princes, in order to disintegrate and weaken the power of the original Qin, he deliberately entrusted the original Qin's territory to Yongwang Zhanghan, Saiwang Simaxin, and Zhai Wang Dongyi. In Xiang Yu's view, this has another advantage that Liu Bang was demoted from Qin to Bashu and Hanzhong. This would also allow Zhang Han, Sima Xin, and Dong Yi to suppress and balance Liu Bang's power.
But Liu Bang is naturally not a fuel-efficient lamp. Just three months after Tian Rong, Chen Yu and others successively revolted against Xiang Yu, in August 206 BC, Liu Bangming repaired the plank road and crossed to Chencang (now east of Baoji City, Shaanxi Province) and returned. In the Guanzhong area, he quickly defeated Zhang Han and made an emergency landing on Sima Xin and Dong Yi. After pacifying the Guanzhong area, Liu Bang wrote to Xiang Yu, stating that he just wanted to retake the Guanzhong area and meet the original agreement of "the first entry is king." Liu Bang stated that he had no intention of going eastward to fight for hegemony with Xiang Yu, which made Xiang Yu relax his vigilance and instead concentrated on attacking Tian Rong in the north.
Taking advantage of Xiang Yu’s main force fighting the northern Qi, Liu Bang appointed Han Xin as a general under the recommendation of Xiao He, and soon defeated the Western Wei King Wei Bao, captured the Yin King Sima Ma, and occupied Luoyang. The forces advanced to Xiang Yu’s confidant. zone.
Xiang Yu didn't notice, and was still attacking Qi with all his strength. Not only that, Xiang Yu also ordered people to kill the Emperor Yi, who is known as the co-lord of the world, in Chenxian County (now Chenzhou, Hunan), which gave Liu Bang the pretext for crusade, so Liu Bang publicly attacked Xiang Yu as the leader of the vassals in Luoyang. After pretending to cry for the Yi Emperor, Liu Bang immediately led a coalition of 560,000 princes to publicly attack Xiang Yu, and soon broke through the capital of Chu, Pengcheng.
From the dispatch of troops to Guanzhong in August 206 BC, to May 205 BC, when he led the coalition forces to attack Pengcheng, the capital of Chu State, Liu Bang made rapid progress in less than a year. Therefore, just like when he attacked Xianyang, Liu Bang also thought in Pengcheng. He defeated Xiang Yu and began to indulge in singing. He did not expect Xiang Yu to make a counter-attack, leaving the army to continue to attack Qi, and he led 30,000 soldiers to counterattack Pengcheng and defeated the 560,000 coalition forces of Liu Bang and the princes.
In the Battle of Pengcheng, Liu Bang's Han army suffered more than 200,000 casualties. Due to the large number of dead bodies of the Han army, they "shuishui did not flow." To
At the critical moment of historical turning point, Xiao He and Han Xin combined to turn the tide for Liu Bang.
In the Battle of Pengcheng, Liu Bang was beaten and fled in embarrassment. When he led the remaining dozens of people to escape, because of fear of being chased by the Chu army, Liu Bang, who was walking too slowly in the carriage, even wanted to take his son Liu Yinghe several times. The daughter pushed off the car to escape as soon as possible.
And Liu Ying is the future Emperor Hui of Han; this daughter is the future Princess Lu Yuan.
In order to escape for his life, Liu Bang completely ignored the family relationship. Instead, the carriage driver Xia Houying couldn't bear it. Several times, Liu Ying and Princess Lu Yuan, who had been kicked off by Liu Bang, were taken to the car again.
For this reason, Liu Bang was furious and wanted to kill Xia Houying with a sword many times. Xia Houying insisted that this is your own flesh and blood. "Although the situation is critical, how can you bear to leave your children behind?"
For this reason, after Liu Bang’s death and Han Hui Emperor Liu Ying ascended the throne, in order to commemorate Xia Houying’s life-saving grace, the Han Hui Emperor specially awarded Xia Houying the first-class mansion in the north of the imperial city and gave it a name. Near me".
Liu Bang is an interestist through and through. Fortunately, he owns Xiao He.
After hearing of the defeat of the Han army, Xiao He, who was in Guanzhong for Liu Bang, immediately conscripted all the remaining old, weak, sick and disabled in the Guanzhong area, and delivered all the grain, grass and supplies for Liu Bang to help Liu Bang rise again, so that Liu Bang was able to regain his strength. Possessing strength and Xiang Yu stalemate in Xingyang, Chenggao area.
It can be said that without Xiao He, Liu Bang could not survive the defeat of Pengcheng.
Behind Xiao He, Liu Bang and Xiao He used the Guanzhong area as their base, and they always had a large number of soldiers and food and supplies, which laid a solid military and material foundation for Liu Bang to defeat Xiang Yu.
On the contrary, compared with the Guanzhong area, known as China’s earliest "land of abundance" after hundreds of years of governance by the Qin State, Xiang Yu’s base camp in Jiangdong area was still sparsely populated and economically weak at this time, and it was simply not enough to serve as a long-term hegemony base and large base. rear.
In essence, the Qin State's ability to defeat the Six Nations was based on the success of the Guanzhong region on a material basis.
Xiang Yu didn't see the mystery behind Qin's success and easily abandoned the Guanzhong area. Therefore, he tried to use Jiangdong as his base to dominate the king. Essentially, he lacked a solid population and material economic foundation.
From the perspective of China's military geography, from the Zhou Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, it was a victory from west to east; while in the Song, Yuan, and the late Ming and early Qing periods, it was a victory from north to south;
In Chinese history, only in the period of the late Yuan and early Ming and the Northern Expedition of the Republic of China, after the rapid economic development of the south, the successful northern expedition from south to north was realized.
So in this sense, Xiang Yu’s failure, apart from making enemies everywhere, killing and surrendering everywhere, and not uniting allies, was rooted in the fundamental reasons for the failure of military geography, economic foundation, and political system arrangement (from The county system was restored to the state system).
But Xiang Yu is worthy of being Xiang Yu. Despite being enemies on all sides, he still defeated Liu Bang's 560,000 allied forces with an army of 30,000, just as he defeated the Qin army with less and more in the Battle of Julu.
Relying on Xiao Hehe's continuous support from the Guanzhong area, Liu Bang confronted Xiang Yu's army in Xingyang and Chenggao, and the two sides have won each other since then.
However, in the battle of Xingyang, Liu Bang was beaten again by Xiang Yu with only his underwear, and only took dozens of people out of the city to flee.
At that time, during the First Battle of Xingyang, the Han army was besieged from all sides in the city. Liu Bang had no choice but to let his general Ji Xin pretend to surrender at the east gate of Xingyang, while he took the opportunity to take dozens of people out of the city to escape from the west gate.
Liu Bang even gnawed away the Guanzhong boss that Xiao He supported at one time, but he had another wizard that Xiao He presented: Han Xin.
Prior to this, Xiao He, who recovered Han Xin under the moon, fully recommended Han Xin as a general in front of Liu Bang. Han Xin did not disappoint. He led troops to put down Wei and Daiguo, defeated the Chu army, and captured Zhao.
Although Liu Bang was beaten into embarrassment by Xiang Yu many times in Henan, most of the north was already in Han Xin's hands. In order to make a comeback, Liu Bang took Xia Houying alone after escaping from Xingyang, taking advantage of Han Xin's sleep in the morning before getting up. Directly broke into Han Xin's Chinese army camp and seized Shogun, and then began to issue orders to seize Han Xin's army to make a comeback for his army.
At that time, Han Xin woke up and was told that Han Wang Liu Bang had returned to seize military power. He was shocked, but no matter how vast the territory he opened up, Han Xin was still a soldier of Han Wang Liu Bang in name. Therefore, Han Xin had to obey his orders. Zhao Bing transferred to Xingyang to attack Qi.
At that time, Qi Guo Tian Rong had been attacked and killed by Xiang Yu, and Tian Rong's younger brother Tian Heng later changed his son and his nephew Tian Guang to continue to contend with the King of Chu.
Liu Bang, who has been treacherous all his life, would naturally not let go of the opportunity, so on the one hand, Liu Bang pretended to send the messenger Li Shiqi, named Gaoyang Drunkard, to persuade Tian Heng and Tian Guang's uncle and nephew to fight against Xiang Yu. When resisting Chu, Liu Bang secretly dispatched Han Xin to attack Qi, so that Tian Heng and Tian Guang were angry and killed Li Shiqi.
Han Xin successfully captured the Kingdom of Qi. Under this circumstance, Han Xin, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, became a tripartite power in the country at that time. It can be said that when Han Xin invested in Liu Bang, Liu Bang won; if he invested in Xiang Yu, Xiang Yu won.
Han Xin naturally knew his weight, so he sent an emissary to Liu Bang to say that although I control Qi now, but the power is not strong enough, Qi people are cunning and changeable, Chu also looks at me, if I don’t make me a false king, I’m afraid It's hard to stabilize Qi country.
After Liu Bang heard the explanation from the envoy sent by Han Xin, he immediately yelled, saying that I couldn't keep up with Xiang Yu and looked forward to Han Xin to rescue me day and night, but this stinky boy came to threaten me.
Zhang Liang and Chen Ping were also anxious when they heard that, they immediately went to step on Liu Bang’s foot secretly, and then approached Liu Bang’s ear and said:
Liu Bang reacted cleverly, changed his words immediately, and said loudly to Han Xin's messenger:
Therefore, Liu Bang then sent Zhang Liang to make Han Xin the king of Qi and dispatched Han Xin's army to attack Xiang Yu.
Xiang Yu was naturally anxious. After years of fighting, the economy in the rear of the Chu Kingdom was diminished and the people’s livelihood was difficult. If Han Xin went from north to south, the situation of the conflict between Chu and Han would definitely change. So Xiang Yu sent a lobbyist Wushe to lobby Han Xin. I hope that Han Xin can help Xiang Yu, but Han Xin said that when I served King Xiang, I was not an officer, but a halberd. I didn’t know what I said. That’s why I took refuge in Liu Bang. Liu Bang gave me the seal of the general to give me a chance. Commanding hundreds of thousands of soldiers, I have only achieved what I am today, so I will not betray the Han to Chu, please apologize to King Xiang for me.
Wushe returned without success, but Han Xin’s counselor
Kuai Tong also lobbied Han Xin at this time, saying that the king should neither help Chu nor the Han at this time, but should stand together with Liu Bang and Xiang Yu in the world. Otherwise, you will be a dead end.
However, Han Xin of Zhien Tubao did not listen to Kuai Tong's words, and he was unwilling to betray Liu Bang.
After Chinese history entered the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the so-called Spring and Autumn Period, the princes attacked each other with deceitful warfare, and Song Xianggong, who "does not strike a rank" and guarded the spirit of aristocracy, was ridiculed by people and later generations. Under the background of the degeneration of aristocratic spirit and the rise of the era of secular utilitarianism, the flexible idiot, Liu Bang, who started his business as a rascal, has the essence.
When he was at odds with Xiang Yu and the two armies, Xiang Yu threatened to "cook" Liu Bang's father Liu Taigong, and the gangster brazenly shouted to Xiang Yu,
Faced with the gangsters, the hero is helpless, Xiang Yu had to give up.
The Chu and Han stalemates were unable to decide the outcome. Especially for Xiang Yu, he did not have the same base camp as the Guanzhong area to provide continuous support, while the northern Wei, Zhao, Qi and other places were also affected by Liu Bang’s forces. Occupied with Han Xin, and Peng Yue continued to harass him in guerrilla warfare, in desperation, Xiang Yu decided to make peace with Liu Bang.
In Liu Bang’s view, although the territory he occupied was gradually expanding, he was still unable to defeat Xiang Yu in the army. On the contrary, he was beaten into embarrassment and fled for his life several times. Therefore, Liu Bang also agreed. The two sides agreed to use the chasm as the boundary. Han divides the world together.
But the nature of the rogue is that the morality and peace treaty is just a bullshit. Seeing that Liu Bang really wants to withdraw his troops, Zhang Liang and Chen Ping immediately announced that the Han army has annexed more than half of the world, and there is sufficient food and grass. On the contrary, although Xiang Yu has a strong military force, Xiang Yu is not stable at all. It’s better to take advantage of the Chu army’s retreat and attack them by surprise.
Liu Bang felt reasonable, so he informed Han Xin to attack Xiang Yu together, and then Liu Bang began to attack quickly.
Unexpectedly, Han Xin's soldiers did not come at all, and Liu Bang, who was perfidious, was once again defeated by the Chu army.
Han Xinwei can't afford to lose. At this critical moment, Zhang Liang once again offered a plan and said that he could only lure.
Therefore, Liu Bang "promises" to Han Xin that as long as you come to help me kill Xiang Yu, the chassis east of Chenxian will belong to you Han Xin.
In addition, Liu Bang invited Peng Yue, who was guerrilla everywhere, and said that as long as you come, all places east of Suiyang will belong to you.
Not only that, Liu Bang also invited Jiujiang Wang yingbu (Tsing BU), and led Xiang Yu's big Sima Zhou Yin and others to attack Xiang Yu together.
As a result, Han Xin, who was given a lot of profit, finally sent troops. Together with Liu Bang, Peng Yue, Ying Bu, Zhou Yin and others, Liu Bang’s Five Route Allied Forces totaled 700,000 and Xiang Yu’s remnant 100,000 Chu Army was under the Gai Xia (now Lingbi, Anhui). ) Start a decisive battle.
Xiang Yu, who had fought for many years, was finally defeated and killed himself.
However, Xiang Yu, who was only 30 years old, didn't understand the reason for his failure. Just before Wujiang killed himself, he still shouted to his men:
As the last hero of China from the age of nations to the age of empire, Xiang Yu started fighting against the violent Qin with his uncle Xiang Liang since the age of 24. At the age of 25, he led his troops to defeat the main force of the Qin army in the Battle of Julu, thus laying the foundation for the elimination of violence. The foundation of Qin, it can be said that as a hero of the era, Xiang Yu has his own unique aesthetic value. Even though he once combined with the Kwantung Allied Forces to kill 200,000 Qin troops and surrendered several times in the siege of the city. His political opponents didn’t know how to fight for subjugation and were eventually defeated by Liu Bang’s coalition forces. However, even if he died, Xiang Yu was still upright and vigorous. Compared with Liu Bang’s capriciousness, intrigue, and gangster habits, Xiang Yu was a failed man. The hero still won countless sympathy.
In this sense, history does not simply judge heroes in terms of success or failure.
After Xiang Yu’s death, before moving the capital to Chang’an, Liu Bang once feasted on his officials in the Nangong Palace in Luoyang, and discussed with them the reasons for his victory or defeat with Xiang Yu. In this regard, the general Gao Qi and Wang Ling said that his majesty sent people to attack the city. The benefits of Xiang Yu are often rewarded to everyone, sharing the same benefits with the world; but Xiang Yu often wins battles but often does not give benefits, and the land does not give credit or credit, so that he makes enemies everywhere, and finally becomes a lonely man.
While expressing partial agreement, Liu Bang also added his own opinion:
For a secularized era, the heroic era and aristocratic spirit that emphasized morality and faith have gone away. In the eyes of Liu Bang’s courtiers, only the secular era of the supremacy of interests is what people want at a historical turning point. Xiang Yu is heroic, but he can't win over the heroes. Therefore, although Xiang Yu is surrounded by upright gentlemen, and Liu Bang is surrounded by many villains like Chen Ping, the historical choice is still tilted to the side of profit and strategy.
After more than 2,000 years of the Chinese Empire, Liu Bang's deceit and tactics were everywhere, and Xiang Yu's heroism became the last swan song of the Chinese classical era.
This kind of heroic spirit and aristocratic spirit does not belong to the loyalty of Confucianism to the emperor and the country, but a kind of personal aesthetic pleasure. In this sense, the era of individual heroes also abruptly ended in Xiang Yu.
After Xiang Yu's death, there were still seven vassal states with different surnames in the Han Empire. In order to eradicate these forces, Liu Bang also began to attack allies one by one. A few months after he became emperor, in 202 BC, Liu Bang first tried to rebel
In 198 BC, Liu Bang again abolished the State of Zhao and replaced his son-in-law,
In 196 BC, Liu Bang forced a rebellion
Just over a month after Han Xin and Han Wangxin were killed, in the third lunar month of 196 BC, Liu Bang again designed capture
After receiving the meat sauce of Peng Yue, the "reward" of Liu Bang, my heart was shocked.
Therefore, in the year when Liu Bang slaughtered princes and kings of different surnames wildly, in 196 BC, Liu Bang, who replaced Zang Tu as the king of Yan, was born in the new year
As a result, Lu Wan was forced to connect with the Huns secretly. Later, Lu Wan simply fled to the Xiongnu territory, and eventually died of the Huns.
The remaining Changsha king Wu Rui was temporarily put on hold because of his weakness and Liu Bang's recurrence of arrow injuries during the crusade against Yingbo.
As a result, Liu Bang claimed that the eight princes and kings with different surnames that existed successively after the emperor and queen, ultimately only survived the Changsha king Wu Rui.
In this regard, Liu Bang was still worried before he died. He even forced the princes and ministers to hold the "White Horse Alliance" and asked them to apply the white horse blood on their lips to pledge allegiance to the Liu family:
A few months after the "White Horse League" was held in 195 BC, Liu Bang finally died in Chang'an in 195 BC after successively annihilating several princes and kings of different surnames.
At this time, it was only seven years after Xiang Yu cried himself.
Before his death, the rogue emperor once returned to his hometown of Peixian (now Fengxian, Jiangsu). He built it with his own hands and sang loudly:
With regret, this grassroots emperor and Xiang Yu, who was born in a noble family, met Huangquan together.
A new era has begun.